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KS4: Vaccination

This lesson includes a detailed presentation and animations showing how the body fights harmful microbes daily. Students will take part in an in-depth discussion about vaccinations, including busting some common vaccine misconceptions.

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Learning objectives
All students will:
  • Understand that vaccinations help individuals to develop immunity against an infection(s) and helps to fight off the infection(s)
  • Understand why vaccines are important to students now and throughout their life
  • Understand the important diseases prevented by vaccines, and why these are important to young people, including students
Most students will:
  • Understand how the media, and epidemics, can affect vaccine uptake positively and negatively
Background Information

Vaccinations have been one of the most effective methods to prevent disease and have helped to lower mortality associated with infectious diseases worldwide. They are designed to prevent disease, rather than treat a disease once you have caught it.

A vaccine can be made from weak or inactive versions of the same microbes that make us ill. In some cases, the vaccines are made from cells which are similar to, but not exact copies of, the microbe cells that make us ill. New Messenger RNA (mRNA) vaccines , like some of the COVID-19 vaccines, teach our cells how to make a protein, or piece of protein, to trigger an immune response inside our bodies. Through each of these mechanisms, an immune response is triggered in our bodies and produces antibodies. This is why all vaccines can protect us from getting infected with different diseases. While mRNA vaccines are newly available to the public, researchers have been investigating this for decades. All vaccines, no matter what disease it is for, goes through rigorous processes to ensure that they are safe and effective before being offered to the public.

Herd Immunity is a type of immunity which occurs when the vaccination of a portion of a population (or herd) provides protection to unvaccinated individuals. If enough of a population is vaccinated, unvaccinated individuals are less likely to come into contact with the disease due to its decreased prevalence. It is important to maintain herd immunity as some people are unable to have vaccinations.

In this lesson plan, students watch a series of videos and participate in class discussion around how vaccines work to protect us from infection. They also take part in a debate to understand different perceptions of vaccines and learn how facts can be used to address common misconceptions.

Main activity:

Immunity and Vaccinations Worksheet. The links for the videos related to this activity are below

Main Activity video
Extension activities:
Curriculum links


  • Scientific thinking
  • Experimental skills and strategies
  • Analysis and evaluation


  • Cells
  • Health and disease


  • Health and prevention


  • Reading
  • Writing

Art & Design:

  • Graphic communication
Supporting Materials
Teacher sheets
KS4 Vaccinations Teacher Guidance
TS1 Immune System Teacher Answers
TS2 Student Worksheet 2 Teacher Answers
TS3 Vaccine Misconceptions Answers
Student worksheets
SW1 Student Worksheet
SW2 Vaccine Misconceptions
SW3 Vaccine Timeline